Organic Farming in Pakistan
By Farzana Panhwar (Mrs)
The Sindh Rural Women's Up-lift Group
157-C, Unit No.2, Latifabad, Hyderabad
Fax: 9221-5830826 and 92221-862570
I am a bio-chemist working in the field of organic agriculture and effects of pollution and environment of human and animal and plant health.
Organic Products, Social Qualities With Equal And Fair Trade Its Constrain And Future
Impact Of Biotechnology In Reducing Poverty And Hunger In Pakistan
Composting As An Organic Fertiliser
Producing Pesticide Free Fruits And Vegetables
Genetic Engineering, Biotechnology, Floriculture And Its Future In Pakistan
Gender Issue In Rural Development Of Sindh In Pakistan
Poultry Farming Practice In Sindh-Pakistan
Chiku or Sapodilla The Neglected Fruit of Sindh
The Characteristics Of Rabbit Farming
Organic Products, Social Qualities With Equal And Fair Trade Its Constrain And Future
Why organic farming is necessary.
In Pakistan most of large farms are run by absentee land lords, in this case land is cared by the workers, who have no feeling of ownership amount of production, margin of profit. On other hand small land owners, who are present on the farms have constraints of purchasing large amount of inputs associated with risk are forced to diversify their investments. To cover risks they usually reduce farm inputs but are not able to reduce environmental degradation like soil erosion, pollution, excess water input, water logging drainage, control of perennial weeds etc. Organic farmer pays more to the labours also controls his farm as well as off farm environmental costs. They cut production cash costs by putting family labour eliminate inorganic fertilisers, pesticide and herbicides and reduce soil erosion. Conventional food may contain carcinogens, chemicals that cause diseases including cancer. Additive in processing may further activate carcinogens. This food may contain nitrates and other preservative or nitrosamine which are potent carcinogen. Conventional farmer spent more on input of fertilisers, pesticide and these wastes goes to the environment specially ground water. This type of farming enters into industrial production processing and distribution system the whole chain of which adds some more chemicals. The cost of this industrial model for agriculture are phenomenal and extremely wide reaching, yet unrecognised as industrial production making use of more chemicals and machine produces food cheaper, better in cosmetic look and yet poisoned by chemicals. Organic farming has potential of niche markets for local high valued, non-conventional, indigenous and local agricultural products like medicinal herbs, traditional agriculture and non-timber tree products. Farmers trends to switch to organic farming is correlated closely with the size of conversion grants. The subsides for conventionally produced food currently limit the growth of organic agriculture to the size of market that is willing to pay higher price to the consumer. Although organic products and its market outlet are limited but premium prices may boost the market.
World picture of organic farming.
In 1989, subsidies were introduced in several European countries, like Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Austria, Switzerland, to encourage conversion to organic farming, which changed 376,000 hectares of land by 10,000 farmers into organic farming. In Germany where subsidies are available for two years so 7.9% of farm of farm and 3.6% land changed to organic farming.
In 1989 Europe is able to increase 200,000 hectares to 900,000 hectares organic farming. In Iran total 20,000 ha with production of 107,000 kg per year well adopted to social structure of family oriented activity. It is based on manual work, production and processing based on indigenous methods and animal manure is the main source of plant nutrition. In EU countries the number of organic farmer have increase from 6,000 in 1985 to 48,000 today. Italy have 30,000 certified organic farmers. In Scandinavian countries 8% are certified organic farmers. Australia has 10%, U.K 5% organic farmer. The total farm area in Pakistan 19.7 million hectares, which is 28% of the total area of the country. The average size farms in 1972 was 5.2 hectares. In Pakistan only few farmers are organic farmers. Ministry of Agriculture, fisheries and food in U.K pay support of 50 per ha per year for 5 years to convert to organic farming. Expected growth rate of organic farming in the World is 20-30% but organic agriculture will never be able to feed the rapidly growing world population due to low labour out put inspite of high yields. Due to over use of chemicals, land is depleted of organic matter and average production per ha decreases. Food produced in excess to demand serves to reduce commodity prices, received by farmer's but hungry people ill afford high priced organic food.
Organic approach is to minimise the adverse impacts on the environments, by avoiding the use of materials from non-renewable resources, recycling where possible, use minimum amount of pesticides, avoiding the use of resources which cause pollution, relying on crop rotation, using crop residue recycling animal manure, legumes, and green manure, biological pest control, minimum tilth to be used to maintain soil productivity, to minimise the energy costs of production and transportation materials, to keep soil more fertile. Organic methods improve soil health, increase population of healthy worms, fungi and other soil organisms. Organic agriculture saves the land from losses due to erosion and soil degradation, improve soil fertility and enhances moisture conservation. Diverse varieties only be used under unfavourable conditions.
Organic farming is based on less inputs, better market demand due to having environmental and social concerns. It also based on local resources and technologies that provide farmer better independence and more control over their means of production. Environmental impacts of organic farming are:
- Improvement of soil biological activity.
- Improvement of physical characteristics of soil.
- Reducing nitrate leaching.
- Increasing and improving wild life habitant.
Organic farming in Pakistan.
Its objective are to develop low capital less labour intensive, high yielding, better quality and healthy organic farming. Reducing the cost of production to minimum to achieve self sufficiency in all inputs. It is recognised as a long-term solution to the problem caused by nitrate pollution. Organic agriculture in the beginnings shows lower yields than conventional cropping but as its input are lower than conventional agriculture and labour in Pakistan is cheap, in long when organic agricultural methods have improved soil characteristics, soil fauna and established worm activity and large production of vermicasts, the yields will surpass the conventional methods.
Nutritional criteria of organic products.
People's choice of food is based not only on prices, taste, but also takes in to account, moral, religious and dietary reasons. Some even think in terms of exploitation of human and natural resources and degradation of environments. The organic food on the whole is nutrition and meets anatomical and physiological requirements of human. It also helps in interaction of food clean like production, processing, packaging and trading within the environment and the social structures.
The organic farmers used garlic pyrethrum and neem to control pest and diseases, also use predators like Encarsia Formosa used to control green house, white fly and phytoseinlus persimilis a predator mite used for two-spotted mite control also get composts are a wonder producing by recycling garden and kitchen wastes. Mulch is magic and not help in suppressing weed but gives plants raised all macro and micro-nutrients, in chelated forms and vermicasts rich in nutrients and antibiotics. Biomass use as organic matter and also does the same. Crop rotations and inter cropping is designed to improve soil fertility. Organic matter composts and manures improve the soil health and thereby plant health to the extent that pests attack on crop is reduced and damage is negligible.
Animals and organic farming.
The organic farmer must work hard to integrate animals in to the farming system:
- The non-agricultural public must understand that organic animal husbandry is fundamentally better the kind of animal production they constantly criticise.
- Some livestock farmers also find difficulty to justify conversion to organic production, due to high restructuring cost and lack of premium prices to compensate for yield reduction and also reducing in the area for organic production rotational constraints.
Organic products have premium market which make not available to the whole population due to prices constraints. The prices of organic products is increased by factor such as: small scale production, widely dispersed farm, separate packing facilities more expensive recycled packaging and pricing policies of shops. Some consumers are ready to pay more for food that has superior quality. Consumer demand for organic products is gradually increasing due to concern about the environments and health implications of industrial agriculture although there is no relation between consumer and producer but the poor financial performance of organic farming reflects the financial problems of small farmers in some cases due to lack of access to premium market helps. Such difficulties have forced out from the business the small organic farmers. It is possible that organic farmers market their products directly but it requires more labour and organisation. Organic food are supplied to supermarket also provide home delivery. Seasonal production and regional markets remain an important objective in organic farming. We have to maintain National Organic Standards Board to decide the criteria of what is organic? International movements (IFOAM) has formulated basic standards to define organic production. Food containing products of gene technology should be labelled, so consumer have an option, Bioethics influences the marketability of products derived from biotechnology. It is the consumers who decide on the prospects of biotechnological markets. Organic food should be labelled that consumer products not derived from genetically engineered varieties. Organic product must boost-out agribusiness, chemical-biotech corporation and giant supermarket chain. The most developed markets for organic food are Northern World.
There are 300 organic trade marks on the market. Organic label is common in 15 countries. Organic trade should strengthening the local communities for better social and environmental accountability, food security, conserving natural resources, control biological and cultural diversity.
Healthy food and fair trade organisations accept the principal of external monitoring by labelling. Organisation are awarded label of approval. The Fair Trade based on equal partnership between the Southern producers, Northern importers, labelling organisation, fair trade shops and consumers these organisation work with the producer organisation. They produce to improve the ecological sustainability of production. It also provide protection to the new comers in this field, this will be helpful to the farmer's organisation to secure working capital, long term loan for investments, market information, communication, management, and technical support and assistance, but it also required guarantee that labelled products meet fair trade criteria. Fair trade can lead to environmental benefits.
Fair trade need fair and real cost covering prices for farmers all over the world but its products must be upto international standards in terms of quality and quality and must be accountable to the labelling organisation. International fair-trades help strengthening local economics. National fair-trades designed their own label and define the condition under which producers, trade and industry acquire the right to use the fair trade label in their commercial promotion. The fair trade rules exist for coffee, cocoa, banana, honey, sugar but royalties are imposed to cover operating cost when one uses these fair trade label. Certification either from fair-trade or organic Agriculture Movement produce confidence and trust. This protects the consumer's rights. Fair trade must provide social fairness, ecological responsibilities as pre-conditions, for sustainable production. It contribute to improve the living standard of economically disadvantaged small farmers to strengthening their self-governing organisation. Certifying organisation has devised special criteria for quality assurance, in-co-operaiton with the inspection organisation IMO (Institute for Market Ecology) and in accordance with IFOAM's accreditation programme.
Fair trade may have problem due to lack of management skill, private interest could be more than co-operative interest, market diversification into conventional, fair trade and organic market. Organic certification is slow, laborious and costly process and is a challenge to small producers. The price premium above the market price is insufficient, while inflexibilities inherent in fair trade model eroded a substantial part of the price premium. Fair trade movement is able to seriously challenge the social dumping that involves the exploitation of cheap labour and child labour.
- The barrier in trade are: restrictive trade policies perverse subsidies and bureaucratic regulations, integrating environmental factors are used to design better export strategies.
- Farmer's rights and protection of traditional plant varieties. Also trade related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) under aegis of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATI), must include farmer privilege. Small farmer have little access to information on World market prices, lack of transparency and politically inspired distortion, small farmer usually receive low prices for their produce. Farmer have insufficient information on improved technologies and scientific understanding of the process involved in their farming system, in efficient extension service. Under present unstable market conditions, procedure is not adopted according to the need of farmer's organisation.
- The factor responsible for market development are government fair and the sole of major super markets.
- Government price policies, monopolies on market of agriculture produce, causing low agricultural income.
- Organic agriculture requires time and well trained extension workers. Since organic farming is a new practice it needs competent and reliable management.
- Major problem is lack of public awareness of organic food.
- Development of viable producer and consumer linkages.
- Poverty alleviation, sustainable development, food security, agrarian reforms and appropriate technologies better farm management is needed.
- Due to lack of marketing structure, organic products are sold at the market rate of conventional produce. Artificial price structure bring disadvantage to consumer as well as producer.
- Organic farms spent more on labour for spreading manure. Organic farmer suffers due to high labour cost and labour scarcity.
- In future we have to check the economic market and policies in which organic products produce and marketed and check in the financial results which fluctuate by the resources, farm business, better management, labour availability.
- In future Government design better Trade regulation which are socially fair, ecologically sound and better standards for green and fair trade.
- Future we have to establish promotion and training programmes to foster export opportunities for organic products.
- Future attention should be given to meet the guarantee system that will ensure organic quality and allow consumer to develop their preferences for organic products with feeling of trust.
- In future we have to develop a practical and sophisticated monitoring procedure that is applicable to different farming structures and maintain international standards.
- In future need proper organic standards, rules and regulation.
Impact Of Biotechnology In Reducing Poverty And Hunger In Pakistan
In 1197 Pakistan population was 137.8 millions. The incidence of poverty in Pakistan is estimated between 30-35% of the population. The poverty line is sent with reference to daily caloric intake of 2,550 calories per adult, as recommended by the Planning commission. The incidence of poverty declined from 46.0% of the population in 1984-85 to 37.4% in 1987-88 and 34.0% in 1990-91. In 1990-91, the incidence of poverty was higher in rural area (36.9%) then in urban area (28.0%).
Poverty line were set at Rs.296 (US$8.40) for monthly per capita consumption expenditure in rural areas and Rs.334 (US$9.50) for monthly per capita consumption expenditure in urban area, poverty based on this method was 31.6% of population below the poverty line 1991. And poverty in rural areas was 33.5% then in urban area is 27.0%.
In Pakistan 65% population live in the rural areas their main profession is agriculture or agricultural related work. In 1981, 26.2% of population above 10 years was literate. While in 1981 literacy rate at the age group 15-24 for males was 54.6%. In urban area it was 35.8%, in rural area it was 64.2%, while for female illiteracy rate was 75.1% for urban area it was 51.9% in the rural area it was 87.9%.
The rural poverty in Pakistan has been artificially created. The responsibility lies on the Federal Government's Price control Board. At the time of independence in 1947, agriculture was the dominating sector, contributing 53% of Gross Domestic Products (GDP). In 1987, 40 years after the formation of Pakistan, it contributed only 25% of GDP, still providing employment to more than 50% of the country's total labour-force. Agriculture and Agro-based industries accounts for 80% of country's total labour-force. The present prices of what in 1995 at Rs.160 per 40 kgs, is about 46.34% of 1975 prices in terms of real prices. Between 1975 Pak Rupee Visa-Vis US Dollar has depreciated from Rs.9.90 to Rs.31.00 per US$1.00. the US Dollar in turn has also depreciated to 0.3329 of 1975 its value. This justifies the price of wheat to do increased by 10 times fixed by the Government to that of 1975 or Rs.396.5 per 40 kgs, against Rs.160 as fixed by the Government.
Consequences of price control.
- Consequences of low prices of agricultural commodities are:
- Low margins of profit to the farming community.
- Low capacity of develop the land further.
- Lack of interest in spending on inputs like, water management, ground water development, irrigation techniques for saving water, applying optimum fertiliser, procuring better seeds, optimum use of plant protection measures, capital cost on structures for efficient farming, precious land levelling introducing new corps and etc.
- Lack of inputs further reduces ability to spend on input and low level of yields are maintained. The yield of all agricultural commodities including fruits, vegetables, grasses are 1/3rd of those in advanced countries.
- Low salaries to farm labour.
- Low ability of farmer to improve his lot, as well as that of his family.
- He cannot support his family and has to economics on food in-take, wear cheap clothes, move bare-footed.
- The low standards of food further cause diseases in the family and high mortality as well as low life expectancy.
- The farm family is not able to earn required calories of food. For rural Sindh the present average is 1600 kilo calories for females and 2000 kilo calories for males falling short by 20%, which is acquired by browsing of wild plant food like berries, young leaves of peas and beans, stolen vegetables and sugar cane and doing extra jobs at home or out side for some one.
- The food of most of rural labour force, tenant farmers and small owner cultivar has been reduced to cereals taken with tea or occasionally with peas and beans.
- Animal protein is taken hardly once a month.
- Milk is produced for sale and poor of above classes hardly take it.
- The research of past 20 years has shown that if at least _ kg milk is not taken by children under 14 years, they become mentally retarded and stupid and this is common occurrence in Sindh of to-day i.e., new population from poor class is low in I.Q and is mentally retarded.
Why prices are controlled?
- Prices are controlled to provide cheap labour to the industry. The industry exports manufactured good at international prices and over and above that they earn bonus. Thus the industry makes high margin of profits, and they keep expanding and putting new industries from the profits. The city labour can fight for the wages but they are provided cheap grains, vegetables, meat, milk and fruit. They are also provided free medical assistance, the bill being about Rs.500 per month per worker's family. Leave salary, gratuity and leave fare assistance takes him to his home village on vacation or provide extra money for family if he stays in the town he works in. He raised no voice and if he does, wages are increased slightly and industrialist is allowed to make profits.
- As against this 100% of land owners are bankrupt and almost all of them take loans from banks for raising crops annually.
- Loans for industry are allowed against urban property and are allowed at 75% of value of property. Loans against land are paid on unit basis. A land of 40 units is sold at Rs.40,000 - 50,000 per acre but the land owner can get only Rs.3,000 for development from banks i.e., 10% or less of value. By these policies government have create a poverty in the rural areas of Pakistan.
By these policies government have create a poverty in the rural areas of Pakistan.
In 2025 due to new technologies and new trade laws like GATT, WATO, International Property Right, these International laws will change the shape of Pakistan government policies.
By the next century we have transgenic crops with better yields and more nutrition and would be able to grow under adverse condition. This will definitely bring change in Pakistan agriculture and it will help in reducing the poverty by creating more markets and jobs. It will provide cheap food to every one but since Pakistan population growing at the rate of 2.8% paper year, by the year 2025 it will be 232.9 millions, while per capita the cropping area will be reduced to 0.7 hectare. The existing land will also suffer due to shortage of water which will reduced from 3,833 cubic meters to 1,643 cubic meters, per capita as a result even when the land is available, it can not be put under agriculture due to shortage of water. At the same time cropped land will further be reduced, due to increase in salinity and water logging. IN 1993 the extent of water logging and salinity in Pakistan at 0-5 feet or 0-152 cms water table depth was 4,923,000 hectares while in Sindh it was 3,633,000 hectares. In 1993 extent of water logging and salinity at 0-10 feet or 0-305 cms water table depth was 9,186,000 hectares while in Sindh it was 5,054,000 hectares.
It means only small portion of land will be left suitable for agriculture having proper irrigation even this cultivated land will further be forced by CO2 emission which in 1992 was 0.6 metric tons and climatic change and global warming also bring the change in cropping pattern. Switching over to new cropping pattern in a slow process.
It means Pakistan depend upon import of food. If we see the global picture, the average production of cereals in the World in 1990-91 was 1,925,044,000 metric tonnes. It changed only by 18% change since 1980-82. In 1990-92 the average yield of cereals in the World was 2,757 kilograms per hectare, while it was only 22% change, since 1980-82. If we see a World picture of cereal production and yields in the past ten years, the change is only 18-22%. Global population is project6ed to reach 10 billion by the year 2025, so global agricultural production must expand 2.5 - 3.0 times to provide and adequate diet to the World people.
The World per capita food production has dropped due to increases in agricultural labour, reduced area under cultivaiton and shortage of irrigation water. Advanced technologies and mechanisation, advance crop breeding practices need more input of fertilisers and pesticides. The World food producing does not grow as fast as population increase.
This picture shows that biotechnology alone can not feed the World we also need other methods of production simultaneously discussed this issue with the top agriculturist in Pakistan and according to them in year 2025 the scientist may develop high potency vitamin and nutritional tablets to cover malnutrition but no one knows that a kind of gene may be evolved which would produce crop without the help of soil, or may be a kind of gene is evolved which results into a well balanced diet. We may then need another types of raw materials, other than agriculture based.
Composting As An Organic Fertiliser
Our purpose to produce compost is to develop ecologically sound solution to utilise wastes, by cheapest methods and provide environmental friendly way to produce valuable fertiliser for crop production.
Panhwar fruit farm is located 25°-37'N and 68°-36'E of Hyderabad, where we start using our own compost on 100 acres (42 hectares) fruit orchards. We made compost by putting following things together. There are:
1 cubic meter = 35.2 cubic feet - sawdust.
Urea = 1 kg. Triple phosphate = 1 kg. Potassium sulphate = 1 kg. CuSO4 = 200 grams. ZnSO4 = 250 grams. FeSO4 = 250 grams. MnSO4 = 150 grams. Boron = 150 grams.
The following are the scientific results:
Advantages of composting are multifold and digestion of bulky organic matter to almost to one third its original volume but increase in nutrient level of nitrogen, phosphate and potash to multiple fold. The product is readily available to the plants in their most acceptable form and is easy to transport, store and apply. Due to its stability in dry conditions and use by plants, simply when wet. It does not leach down and micro-nutrients in its are readily taken by root in chelated form.
Compost can also be partially dissolved in water and solution containing ingredient can be mixed with water for foliar feed of the plants. Almost any non-synthetic organic matter can be converted into compost by addition of the ingredient discussed above in quantities to produce a balanced product.
Our approach to composting
Although composting consist of transforming organic matter rich into carbohydrates and deficient in nitrogen to be converted into new and stable product by involvement of an aerobic bacteria which consume carbohydrates in the process of their metabolism and converting nitrogen into stable product and micronutrients like copper, zinc, manganese, iron into their chelate organic form for ready application to soil as well as its use as propagation media. The common raw materials for farm composting are: crop residue, grass clipping, leaves, newspaper, peatmose, straw and wood chips and saw dust. Factors affecting the composting process include oxygen, aeration, nutrients (C:N ratio), moisture, porosity, structure; texture, and particle size, pH, temperature and time. It is suggested to use two parts leaves and one part grass clipping result into fast decomposition with no odour produce. The best compost consisted of three times as much plant matter as manure.
The various types of composting include:
- Thermucphillic composting.
Composting experience at Panhwar Fruit Farm
In Pakistan usually people use flood irrigation, which create temporarily anaerobic conditions after every application, which is frequent in our hot and dry weather, resulting into reduction in yield. We therefore, planned to irrigate indirectly by planting the trees on ridges about 2 meter wide and 25-30 cm high and applying water in furrows. Furrow width varies between 2.4 - 4.0 meters depending upon the type of fruit tree. We dump grass grown in the furrow under the trees on the ridges as mulch and put irrigation water in the furrow. It seeps horizontally in the ridges and while evaporating it moistens mulch which in presence of air and moisture is attacked by fungus, bacteria, insects their predators earthworms and in three month, when a new layer of grasses growing in the furrow is dumped on the ridge. This is compost in its most acceptable form.
The pan-evaporation is approximately 30 cm per month from 15th April to end August. Winter are mild, but evaporation of 4-6 cms is common in January the coldest month. Average annual rainfall is 15 cms, which occurs in July-August and is spread over 7 days. Rainfall of 12.5 cm can occur in 24 hours once in 10 years. Annual evaporation is 2.3 meters.
We find following Scientific Results
- Compost increases the rate of infiltratin. It increases the water holding capacity many times. It increases soil aeration. It form humic acid which act as stimulant plant growth. It is an excellent soil conditioner which helps in reducing the soil born plant diseases. It promote the growth of bacteriophages which destroy harmful bacteria. The outer side of compost heap provides ideal condition for beneficial insect multiplication.
- Compost helps in maintaining soil strucutre, it retain air, moisture and nutrient for the crops grown. It also help in controlling soil erosion. It promotes the growth of myeorrhizae associated fungi. These fungi are essential for the growth of certain species. Composting high carbon manure bedding mixtures lower the carbon/nitrogen ratio to accpetble levels for rapid application. The use of compost in potting mixes and in seedlings beds also helped to reduce the need to apply soil fungicides in the production of certain horticultural crops.
- It acts as better buffer solution as it forms organic acid in presence of humus, which lowers the pH and all insoluble nutrients becomes easily soluble in acidic soil. If plants are treated with liquid extract of compost, it prevents attack by fungi like blight and mildew. If helps in neutralisation of soil toxins. If soil have more aluminium in hinder in the absorption of phosphorus but due to compost it forms organic acid which in turn forms stable compound with iron and aluminium, so aluminium does not harm to the plants.
Composting practice at our farm brings fruit plants into fruiting within 24-36 months which other wise comes to production in the 5th year. This is because plants are healthy and there is less attack of diseases.
Producing Pesticide Free Fruits And Vegetables
There is demand world over for pesticide free food, but the information on the various natural pesticides is lacking and therefore, these methods are little used in Pakistan and other developing countries. In the developed countries, the methods being labour intensive are costly and only marginally competitive. A number of articles have been written on Neem products as pesticides, but extracting Azadirachtin in powder form has failed in Pakistan, inspite of the claims to the contrary, as processing technique have not been fully understood. The process of extraction is known theoretically, but has not made any headway, although there is great scope for its export too.
The other species growth in Pakistan in abundance have never been tried. Even neem known to work for control of many insects, pests, fungi, nematodes and viral diseases is used in a very primitive manner and by processes which are not practical, except on a small scale for kitchen garden or plots less than an acre. A solution has to be found for its commercial scale applications and extraction on much larger scale. If the market price is guaranteed by the government, private sector can achieve results easily.
Many fruits and vegetable crops have properties of controlling many insects and diseases and such crops though commonly grown commercially have a certain percentage of products rejected as unmarketable. This part of crops could easily be collected and sold to plants, if they are established on small scale in the rural areas near the farms. Such fruits and vegetbales are:
- Custard apple (Annona reticulata).
- Basil (Sweet Basil) and Holy Basil.
- Chillies (Capsicum frutes), (Fam. Sollanacea).
- Garlic (Allium Sativum) (F. Lilacae).
- Ginger (Zingber officiate) (fm. Zingiberatase).
- Papaya (Carcia papaya).
- Tobacco (Nictana tabacum, Nicotana, Rustica).
- Nicotana glutnosa (Fam. Ziberacease).
These plants have pesticide properties in their seeds, leaves, stalks, un-ripe fruit, bulbs rhizomes etc., and act by different modes of action. Each one control different pests like; aphids, caterpillars, green bugs, fruit flies, leaf minors, red spiders, ants, slugs, house flies, mites, white flies, bacteria, scab, bowl-worm, thrips, anthracnose, hoppers, scales, termites, thrips, mosaic virus, powder mildew etc. Table attached gives names of some of these agricultural species and their pesticide properties.
Plants of pest control should posses the following characteristics:
- Be effective at the rate of max 3-5% plant material based on dry weight.
- Be easy to grow, require little space and time for cultivation and procurement.
- Be perennial.
- Recover quickly after the material is harvested.
- Not to became weed or a host to plant pathogen or insect pest.
- Possess complementary economic uses.
- Pose no hazard to non-target organisms, wild life, humans or environment.
- Be easy to harvest.
- Preparation should be simple, to too time consuming or requiring too high a technical input.
- Application should not be phytotoxic or decrease the quality of crop, e.g., taste or texture.
Plant parts with insect controlling properties
Mode of action
Seeds, leaves, unripe fruit.
Contact and stomach problem, ovicidal, insecticidal, repellent, antifeedent and antinematode.
Aphid, caterpillars, Green bug, Mediterranean fruit fly.
Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilium), Holy Basil (Ocimum Sanctum).
Leaves and stem.
Repellent, insecticidal, fungitoxic and mollu scicidol.
Fruit fly, leaf miners, red spider and mites.
Stomach position insecticidal, repellent, antifeedent, fumigant-viroid.
Ants, aphid, caterpillars and slugs.
Allium Sativum (Fam. Lilaceqe).
Insecticidal, repellent, antifeedent, fungicidal, nematocidal and effective against ticks.
Aphids, house flies, mites, white fly, bacteria, cucumber and scab.
Zingber officiale (Fam. Zingiberacae).
Repellent, insecticidal, nematocidal and fungicidal.
American bowl worms, aphid, thrips, white fly, and mango anthracnose.
Seeds and leaves.
Insecticidal, repellent, antifeedant acaricidal, growth inhibiting nematocidal, fungicidal, anti-viral. Neem compounds act mainly as stomach poison and systemic.
American boll-worms, ants, deserts, locust, leaf hoppers, leaf miners, mites, scales, termites, thrips, white fly.
Leaves, seed, unripe and fruit.
Flower thrips and fruit fly.
Mosaic virus and powdery mildew.
Nicotana tabacum, Nicotana Rustica, Nicotana glutnosa, and Fam. Solanaceae.
Leaves and stalk.
Insecticida, repellent, fungicidal, acaricidal contact, and stomach.
Aphids, caterpillars, leaf miners, mites and thrips.
Curcum domstica (Fam. Zigiberaceoe).
Repellent, insecticidal and antifungal.
Aphids, caterpillars, mites and rice leaf hoppers.
Genetic Engineering, Biotechnology, Floriculture And Its Future In Pakistan
In Pakistan the floriculture is not very well developed. We mostly have fresh flower market, which is all most flooded with roses, because roses are used in all types of ceremonies, as well as in perfume industry and in many Auravedic and Greek medicine preparations. While other flowers which are entering in fresh flower business are orchids, tulip, lily, Jasmine and gladioli, while others are less important.
Pakistan has successfully involved in biotechnology, tissue culture, cutting of floriculture as a result we are now in a position to export these flowers to the developed world. But in order to compete the world we have to study economic trend of shortage and over supply of some flower species in particular season as a result of this the prices of commodities become too low to grow them economically. In order to enter in the world floriculture business, we must consider these points.
The flowers in the world market may be rejected on the followings ground:
- Slight malformation.
- Slight bruising.
- Slight damage caused by diseases or animal parasites.
- Weaker, less rigid stem.
- Small marks caused by treatment with pesticide.
Floriculture which dominate the world market.
- Birds of paradise.
- Antirrhinum (snapdragon).
Future of exotic flowers.
- Porcelaine rose.
Dracacnas species and varieties are:
- Dracaena marginata.
- Dracaena Sanderane.
- Dracaena deremensis.
- Dracaena Massangeana.
- Dracaena Compacta.
- Dracaena S. florida beauty.
- Dracaena Rededge.
The micro-propagation is common in Rededge.
Alstroemeria - varieties.
- Lilac Glory.
- King cardinal.
- Pink Triumph.
- Apple blossom.
- Red Sunset.
- Yellow King.
- Red Valley and Cana.
- Pink perfection.
Fresia - leading varieties.
- Blue heaven.
- Cote d’Azur.
Lillies - leading varieties.
- Connecticut King.
- Sterling Star.
- Mont Blac.
- Star gazer.
- Yellow blaze.
Consumer preference according to colour.
50% red, 10% Sonia pink, 10% other softer pink (bridal pink), 5% creams and whites.
Croton (Codiaeum variegatum - pictum). The more important commercially grown species are:
- Van Ostenzee.
- Gold star.
- Gold sun.
- Gold finger.
- Phillip Gedulding.
- Sun beam.
- Mrs. Iceton.
Rooted and unrooted cutting have great potential of import. But micro-propagation in future effect the import of following species from developing countries:
- Aglaonema spp.
- Codiaeum spp (crotons).
- Dracaena spp.
- Ficus robusta.
- Maranta Kerchoviana.
- Philodendron Scandens.
- Pleomele Spp.
- Polyscias Spp.
- Pseuderanthemum Spp.
- Schefflera actino phylla.
- Scindapsus aureus.
- Syngonium Spp.
Bromeliaceae species and varieties are.
- Acechmea chantinii.
- Aechmea fasciata.
- Ananas comosus-Aureovariegatus.
- Cryptanthus bivittatus.
- Cryptanttus fosteranus.
- Cryptanthus Rubescens.
- Cryptanthus zonatus.
- Guzymania - Amaranths.
- Guzmania - Claudine.
- Guzymania - Grand Prix.
- Guzmania - Marlebeca.
- Guzmana - Mini Exodus.
- Neoregella-Carolinu Flandria.
- Neoregella Carolnae-myenderffii.
- Neoregella Cardinae-Perfecta Tricolor.
- Tillandsia spp.
- Vriesea poelmanii-hybriden.
- Vrlesea splendens-favourite.
- Vriese Vulkana.
All are produce exclusively by micro propagation.
Foliage pot plant.
- Chamaedorea-c. erumpens.
- Croton-croton variegatum, Norma, peter, codiaeum spp.
- Dieffenbachia - camilla, compacta, Tropic snow, Diexotica.
- Dracaena - Janet craig, D. marginata (colrma, Tricolor), D-Fielastra.
- Ficus-Filyrata - Fragrants, Massangeans, Pleomele Reflexa. D - deremensis, war neckii.
- Maranta - Red and green varieties.
- Nephrolepsis - P. erubescens, P. wendiandii.
- Philodendron - cardatum pluto, P. selloum, spider, Swiss chese is a speices of Monstera delicosa.
- Schefflera - Brassais actinophylla, Barbaricola.
- Scindapsus - S. aureus, Marbie queen and golden varieties
- A glaonema - silver queen, A. robellni Romana, Simplex, Emerold beauty, A. modestum, A. crispum.
- Cissus - Cissus rhombifolia, Ellen Danica and Ellanflonia.
- Gynura G. Sarmentosa.
- Ivy - English ivy of the Hedera genus, there are more than 100 varieties.
- Syngonium - Many varieties - Most of them are propagate through tissue meristem culture.
- Pothos (Scindapsus aureum).
For import all flowers must qualify following criteria.
- Flower not perfect/damaged.
- Supply phase incorrect.
- Sorting-unequal lengths.
- Stalk-limp, curved.
- Foliage deviation.
- Pest-aphids, red spider, thrips etc.
- Fungi - botrytis, mildew etc.
- Growth deviation.
The role of genetic engineering and biotechnology in Floriculture.
- Biotechnology is used to study photo-period, carbon dioxide concentration, growth regulators and water management.
- Modified atmospheric pressure. Integrated pest management cultural practice in floriculture. Floral preservation depends upon the water salinity, fluoride level, stem submersion time and length. Silver nitrate solution in non-metallic container, increases the shelf life of flowers.
- Application of cold storage and transportation methods to cut flowers cuttings, seedling, potted plants, bulbs, corns and ornamental plants help to increases their life while. The factors which affects on the quality of storage material are: stage of plant development, temperature, relative humidity, ethylene, and packaging and transport. Many pre-harvest and post-harvest factors like genetic, climatic a environmental (light, temperature, relative humidity, air quality and pressure) and management (soil conditions, nutrient, fertilisation, irrigation, plant protection) affect on post-harvest quality and longevity of cut flowers.
- Flowers and foliage plants are vulnerable to large post-harvest losses due to more susceptible to mechanical and physical damage, infection of pest and diseases because having moisture, during and after harvest. Biotechnology is used in harvesting, grading, packing, pre-shipping treatments, long distance transportation, long term storage facilities, use of floral preservatives and bud opening solutions development.
- Tissue culture produce consistently graded plants, which are pathogenic free. Due to restriction of phytosanitary regulation for peatmoss and styrofoam. Biotechnology is used to develop potted media that is light in weight having more water retention ability, which help the flowers to improve its shelf-life.
- Biotechnology is used to study the floral preservative solution, which act as substrate for providing continuous respiration, removing vascular blockage in the steam, so water should easily supply to the plant, prevents any bacterial infection and control proper petal colour.
- Biotechnology is need to study the role of ancymidol and ethephon. They act as a growth retardants. More study is needed to find out their role in delaying flowering, so they can be used as post-harvest of flower and to control senescence.
- Biotechnoloyg is needed to study the role of ion-leakage in the petals and its effect on keeping quality of flowers. It is confirmed by the research that ultraviolet radiation at 280-320 nm (UV-B) induce petal tip blackening of cut red roses and detached petal.
- At the same time other research on biotechnology used to study the role of ethylene and find that ethylene as low as 30-60 ppb retard the quality of floral crop and its effect in-rolling of carnation petals, fading and wilting of sepal tips, induction of anthocyanin formation. The findings said the most common preservative solution should contain 1-4% sucrose, 50-200 ppm 8-hydroxy-quinoline sulphate (8-HQS) along with other constituents.
- These findings in floriculture are the backbone of future of floriculture industry.
- Biotechnology should be used to study senescence of cult flowers, that shows 40% low level of esterified to phospholipids, which results into loss of phospholipids (consist of Palmitic, Stearic, Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic acid).
- Biotechnology is used to control changes in carotenoids and anthocyanin during senescing process we must study catecholase activity causing white colour of flowers on senescing.
- Biotechnology is needed to study the effects of pH on senescing. If lower the pH of the media, then the content of organic acid like aspirate, malate, and tartarte increase the flower colour on senescing.
- Biotechnology is used to study to control of oxidative-hydrolytic enzymes, hormonal changes, biochemical reaction take place in the membrane and cell wall structure during senescene of flowers.
- More research is needed to improve the pre-harvest treatment chemicals like silver thiosulfate, N-benzyladenine, Kinetin; Cytokinins, citrates, solution containing sucrose and salts.
- Biotechnology is used to study the bud opening solution based on 10-12% sucrose +200 ppm 8-hydroxy-quinoline-sulfate + 25 ppm sliver nitrate + 75 ppm aluminium-sulphate + 75 ppm citric acid.
- Genetic engineering work already in progress on orchids, chrysanthemum and Dianthus. Although herbaceous ornamental work is easy but woody plant species work need more attention. The genetic engineering have a great large number of identical plants and production of new varieties and genotypes faches prime values in the world market.
Genetic engineering works on floriculture under process in the world.
- Genetic engineering of ethylene insensitivity in Petunia.
- Genetic engineering of Petunia for delayed leaf senescence.
- Genetic engineering of Petunia for growth regulator (dwarfism).
- Fundamental research tool for floriculture biotechnology Petunia Genomics.
- Cloning and engineering genes for better post-harvest life.
- Genetic engineering is used to study role of ethylene in floral senescence, adventiouxs root formation, seed germination and scent formation.
- Chrysan themum but stem is 15-20% shooter than original cultivar - Genetically growth plant have more 10-15% more chlorophyll so it show better growth. These plants are grown under commercial greenhouse conditions.
- Genetic engineering is used to modify the colour of carnation, roses, daisies flowers.
- The luminous bouquet glows florescent green (Green fluorescent protein GFP gene) under ultraviolet light.
- Genetic engineering in floriculture increase production, enhance resistance to insect, diseases and virus, reduce use of pesticide and herbicide.
- Genetic engineering used to extending vase life, minimise post-harvest losses, creating novel product.
- In rose delphinidins (blue-green) gene is response for colour - scientist identify pH genes and modifying vascular pH - so in future we see blue colour colours.
- Orchid - flower colour, prolong shelf life gene chalcone syntheses (CHS) and flavone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), phytoenne and Antisense-Construct they block the enzyme and prevent the process of pigmentation and ethylene synthesis in flower.
Future of genetic engineering.
In Future the Biotechnology will play a role to develop flowers free from following infections and diseases.
A) Live organisms of the animal kingdom, at all stages of their development.
- 1. Anarsis lineatella Zell.
- 2. Diarthoronomya chrysanthemi Ahib.
- 3. Ditylenchus destructor Thorne.
- 4. Ditylenchus dipsacl (kuhn) Filipjev.
- 5. Gracilaria azalella Brants.
- 6. Lampetia equestris F.
- 7. Laspeyresia molesta.
- 8. Lirlomyza trifoll (Burgess).
- 9. Phthorimaea operculella (Zell).
- 10. Radopholus citrophilus (Huettel, Dickson en Kaplan).
- 11. Radopholus similis (Cobb) Thorne (Sensu stricto).
- 12. Rhagoletis cerasi L.
- 13. Scolytidae (of conifers).
- 14. Dactulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch).
- 1. Corynebacterium insidiosum (McCull) Jensen.
- 2. Corynebacterium michiganense (E.F. Sm.) Jensen.
- 3. Erwinia chrysantheml Burikh, et al. (syn. Pectobacterium) parthenii var.
- dianthicola Hellmers).
- 4. Pseudomonas caryophylli (Burkh.) Starr et Burkh.
- 5. Pseudomonas gladioli Severini (syn. P. marginata [McCull]. Stapp)
- 6. Pseudomonas pisi Sackett.
- 7. Pseudomonas solanacearum (E.F. Sm.) E.F. Sm.
- 8. Pseudomonas woodsiii (E.F. Sm.).
- 9. Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Doldge) Dows.
- 10. Xanthomones campestris (Doldge) Dows.
- 11. Xanthomonas compestris pv pruni (E.F. Smith) Dye.
- 12. Xanthomonas fragariae
- 1. Atropellis spp.
- 2. Didymella chrysanthemi (Tassi) Garibaldi et. Gulllino (syn.) Mycosphaerella ligulicola Baker et al.)
- 3. Fusarium oxysporum Schiecht. F. sp. Gladioli (Massey) Snyd. et Hans.
- 4. Gulgnaridia baccae (Cav.) Jacz.
- 5. Ovulinia azaleae Weiss.
- 6. Phlalophora cinerescens (Wr.) van Beyma.
- 7. Phytophthora fragarlae Hickman.
- 8. Puccinia horiana P. Henn.
- 9. Puccinia pelargonii-zonalis Doidge.
- 10. Sclerotinia bulborum (Wakk.) Rehm.
- 11. Sclerotinia convoluta Drayt.
- 12. Septoria gladioli Pass.
- 13. Stromathia gladioli (Drat.) Whet.
- 14. Uromyces spp.
- 15. Verticillium albo-atrum Reinke et Berth.
D) Viruses and virus-like pathogens.
- 1. Arabis mosaic virus.
- 2. Beet curly top virus.
- 3. Beet leaf curl virus.
- 4. Black raspberry latent virus.
- 5. Cherry leaf roll virus.
- 6. Cherry necrotic rusty mottie virus.
- 7. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid.
- 8. Little cherry pathogen.
- 9. Prunus necrotic ringspot virus.
- 10. Respberry ringspot virus.
- 11. Stolbur pathogen.
- 12. Strawberry crinkle virus.
- 13. Strawberry latent ringspot virus.
- 14. Strawberry yellow edge virus.
- 15. Tomato black ring virus.
- 16. Tomato spotted wilit virus.
Role of genetic engineering in all fields of life is an important subject. Future of floriculture lies on genetic engineering and biotechnology, which will produce the future flowers free from pathogen, having better colour, better shapes of petals, better pre and post-harvest life with keeping them fresh for long time, short time of growth with desired feature, characteristics and smell. We are sure that future floriculture will bring revolution in perfume business since it is confirmed that now a days many people are allergic to special smell of some flowers. But genetic engineering will over come this problem in future.
Pakistan can easily get into floriculture market of the world. As we have better soil, suitable temperatures and good sun-shine which are the primary needs of any agrobusiness. Although Pakistan is far-behind in advance technologies but we are sure in future we will also come forward in learning and application of genetic engineering and biotechnology and compete the floriculture market in the world and bring revolution in agribusiness and earn foreign exchange.
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