Published by City Farmer, Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture


Management Strategies in African Homegardens
& The Need for New Extension Approaches

A.W. Drescher (PhD., Ass. Prof./Priv.-Doz.)
(C) Copyright 1997
Section on Applied Physiogeography of the Tropics and Subtropics (APT)
Universität Freiburg
Hebelstrasse 27, D-79104 Freiburg, i. Br./ FRG
The original paper including figures (World 6.0 format) can be obtained by e-mail.

First presented at the International Symposium on Food Security and Innovations - Successes and Lessons Learned, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, March 11-13, 1996.

Second presented and modified at the International Conference on Sustainable Urban Food Systems, May 22-25, 1997, Ryerson Polytechnic University, Toronto, Canada.

Second research report by A.W. Drescher
Urban Agriculture In The Seasonal Tropics Of Central Southern Africa

List of other papers by A.W. Drescher


In Lusaka, as in many other tropical cities, gardening and cropping receive very little support from local authorities. Indeed, city councils often prohibit these activities. The relationship between urban food production, food security and urban environment has been largely neglected.

The main actors in urban agriculture are often women. It turned out that in all compounds having been examined in Lusaka, women are to a greater extent involved in cropping and gardening than men. Production of staple food prevails in the wet season, and vegetable production in the dry season. Microfarming obviously contributes to household food security in town, directly by providing food, and indirectly by generating income. People living in the high-density, low-income compounds in Lusaka have the least access to both land and water. Within the high-density squatter areas, vulnerability in terms of food security differs. In some cases, small homegardens help to decrease vulnerability by buffering risks of food shortages and by diversifying the household's sources of livelihood. Other households can do no gardening because they lack sufficient land, water, labour, etc. Those households are more vulnerable, because they depend completely on purchased food, yet they have low purchasing power. In the case of Zambia, it is not the most vulnerable households which practise dry-season cultivation but rather those which have access to the resources essential for this activity.

Concepts for agricultural extension in the urban environment are missing due to the fact that "real agriculture" was thought to take place in the rural sector only. Homegardening as an important part of the urban microfarming system was completely neglected in the past not only in the urban but also in periurban and rural areas. Nevertheless there is a great demand and need for extension and advice, especially in the highly sensitive sector of leafy vegetable production. For the welfare of the people it would be advantageous to increase the output of such gardens. Nevertheless past policies of "greening" are not applicable to city gardens. Three examples show the need for extension in the sectors of pest management, species composition and -diversity, and soil fertility, and help to clarify the different approaches to urban, periurban and rural food production.


Tropical homegardens, food production, food security, biological pest control, crop species diversity, soil fertility, extension service.


Hunger and malnutrition in the world are increasing not only due to growing population and loss of yield but also caused by the destruction of natural plant resources, the loss of food diversity and structural changes in the environment. Past management strategies of household food security often failed because they where based on the "macro-level" (governments, administrations, ministries). Therefore new strategies focus on the "micro-level" like the individual household (Kampmann 1992).

During 1992 and 1993 a research project on homegardening was carried out in Zambia's capital Lusaka, in periurban areas of Lusaka and rural areas of Zambia. The so-called household garden survey concentrated on the household garden activities as an important part of the landuse system. There is a growing consensus that homegardening combined with nutrition education can be a viable strategy for improving household food security for at-risk populations (Marsh & Talukder 1994). This paper focuses on the situation in urban, periurban and rural areas of Zambia and gives some results of the survey. The main objective of the household garden survey was to clarify the role of household gardens for household food security in Zambia and to identify differences and problems in management strategies and their effects on production in the different areas (with respect to urban microfarming see Drescher 1996a).

Three examples may be useful to clarify some problems of smallholder/microfarmers homegardening strategies and extension approaches:

1. The Problem of Plant Protection in Homegardens

Not much is known up to now about plant protection strategies and the use of pesticides in homegardens of the seasonal tropics in southern Africa. Especially pesticide abuse is a major problem and heavily underreported as pointed out by Gura (1995).

The assessment of plant pests and diseases in vegetables requires much knowledge and experience in plant protection and entomology, which could not be made accessible to the members of the field team. Therefore the observed pests where classified roughly as follows:

The recognition of thrips was a problem already, because you need a well-trained eye to do so. It was not possible to distinguish between different species of aphids or caterpillars.

1.1 The most important Plant Pests in Homegardens

Pests were observed in 90% of urban, in 72% of periurban and 80% of rural homegardens. Not at all, there was any need for intervention in all of the observed cases. The most important pest in homegardens is the aphid, which can be observed especially in brassicas like e.g. rape (Brassica napus) or chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis).

The assessment of pests during the field surveys comes close to what the farmers estimate themselves. Thrips is not known by most of them and does therefore occur in only 1.1% of their gardens (table 1).

Table 1: Assessment of pests in homegardens according to field observations and inquiry of farmers
pestassessment due to field observation (n=85)assessment due to farmers estimation (n = 87)
aphids 64.7 60.7
beetles, bugs 21.2 3.3
white fly 20.0 7.9
crickets 9.4 7.9
thrips 9.4 1.1
spider mites 8.2 15.7
caterpillars 7.0 15.7

1.2 Alternative Methods of Plant Protection

There are different methods of alternative plant protection practised in homegardens, including:

The most common method is the use of ash against insect pests, which was done by 20,5% of the respondents. The ash is used either pure or in water solution. One of the farmers uses warm ash against the white fly, by dusting the leaves 3-4 times weekly.

The second important method is the exaggerated use of water. Either the whole crop is flooded or single leaves, respectively the whole plants are washed (12,5%). The same percentage of farmers practises the method of removing plants or parts of the plants out of the garden. The picking off of pests is practised by 8% of the gardeners.

There are gender specific differences in the use of alternative methods, but only in periurban areas, where 33% of the men but none of the women practise some kind of alternative protection. In all survey areas 52% of men and 48% of the women practise alternative methods of plant protection (n=83).

1.3 The Use of Chemical Plant Protection in Homegardens

One of the major constraints of homegarden production is the abuse of pesticides and consequently the risk of health hazards for the consumers (Gura 1995, Smit 1995). The use of chemicals is often inadequate with respect to the products utilised as well as to application methods (Drescher 1996b).

Sixty percent of all the households of the survey use chemical products for plant protection: 61% in urban, 78% in periurban, and 46% in rural areas. Most important is the insecticide Rogor, followed by Fastac and Thiodan. In some cases still DDT is used (table 2). Many of the farmers do not know the name of the product they use, but rather the colour of the box or bottle of the product. In Lusaka Town this was observed in over 50 % of the cases.

Table 2: Insecticides used in homegardens
Active SubstanceApplicabilityCommon Name
Dimethoate Insecticide Rogor, Salut, Malathion
Lambdacyhalothrine Insecticide Karate
Chlorpyrifos Insecticide Dursban
Alphacypermethrine Insecticide Fastac
Methylcarbamidacid Insecticide Carabaryl
DDT Insecticide DDT
Endosulfane Insecticide Thiodan
Source: Fieldsurvey 1992/93

As table 2 indicates, only insecticides but no fungicides or herbicides are used in homegardens. Often the application is realised with very simple means, and the results are disappointing accordingly. Most of the very poor families are not able to buy expensive pesticides, and implements. Therefore in many cases pesticides are not used at all.

1.4 Natural Biological Control of Plant Pests in Tropical Homegardens

Very little activity is to be seen in the field of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in homegardens of southern Africa. Concepts of other World Regions, like reported by Midmore (1995) and Westermann (1995) for Asia, might due to the low development standard not be applicable to the Southern African situation. Because of the great regional disparities in single states and between the different countries, concepts might not even be applicable to the countries as a whole as the region itself (see Richter, Schnitzler, Gura 1995). The situation in Zambia requires particular approaches. Due to the great economic differences between rural and urban areas and even within the urban centres themselves, no common strategy might work. First of all local resources should be protected and used instead of influencing the situation through outside intervention like rearing and releasing antagonists. In many cases it seems that there is still a very high potential of those local insect resources, partly caused by low impact of pesticides at least up to now. IPM will not work without people's participation.

The observation of natural antagonists of plant pests formed an integral part of the fieldsurvey. It was difficult to identify and especially to quantify different antagonists because of lack of time. Nevertheless it was possible to concentrate on the biological control of aphids by using the presence of parasitized aphids on leaves as an indicator for the occurrence of parasitic wasps. These parasitized aphids can be identified, because they change their colour, after having been parasitized. Additionally, these aphids show a small hole on their upper backside, which is the loophole of the wasp. In 36% of all homegardens, in 63% of urban, in 21% of periurban but only in 4 % of rural gardens parasitic wasps were observed. The parasitation rate was often very high up to an estimated average of nearly 40%. In some cases all of the observed aphids were killed by the wasps. The results for the rural areas must be put in question because they seem to be very doubtful. The low rate should be seen relative to the schedule of the surveys and the composition of the field team. The field survey in rural areas took place when the vegetable crops where still young and less affected by pests. Therefore no antagonists could be observed. Additionally it was not always possible to train the members of the team in a short period of time, so that in many cases the beneficial organisms might have been overlooked.

Due to the big distances of rural survey areas to the capital, it was not possible to conduct further surveys in these areas.

1.5 Methods of Plant Protection - Differences between the Survey Areas in Zambia

There are significant differences to be observed in the distinct survey areas of Zambia with respect to methods of plant protection (Figure 1-3). In rural areas only 23% of the households use chemical methods, while in Lusaka 36% and in periurban areas even 64% do so. This is connected with the small size of the gardens in urban areas and the subsistence oriented production in urban and rural areas. Chemical products are available in town but the financial means are very limited. In contrary very often, no chemical products are available on the rural market. Therefore the rural gardeners practise alternative methods of plant protection. Only 14% of the households in rural areas and Lusaka, respectively 10% in periurban areas practise no plant protection at all. Some of the gardeners try both methods, alternative and chemical plant protection, these are about 25% in urban and rural but only 14% in periurban areas.

Figure 1: Plant Protection in urban homegardens (Not available here)
Figure 2: Plant Protection in periurban areas (Not available here)

Pure alternative plant protection is mainly done in rural areas (43%), still counts for 25% in urban but only for 9% in periurban areas. Due to the market oriented production, most of the periurban farmers practise chemical plant protection.

Gender specific differences where discovered with respect to the use of pesticides and the application of alternative methods of plant protection. In rural areas only 35% of men but 57% of women use pesticides, but simultaneous more women use alternative methods (86%), than men do (65%). In contrary to the rural situation, in peri-urban areas no women, but 33% of men practise alternative methods of plant protection.

Figure 3: Plant protection in rural areas (Not available here)

2. Practical Aspects of Calculating Crop Species Diversity in Tropical Homegardens

The contribution of homegardens to the maintenance of species diversity is one of its main ecological functions. The preservation of traditional crops and vegetables is mainly done in homegardens and not in the fields. Those crops contribute significantly to food diversification of the population and to food security. There is urgent need to intensify the research and promotion of these crops, as pointed out by Lewis (1995).

Up to now, interdependence between species diversity and plant protection played no role in homegardening, because there is no market oriented production. A basic question in this context is, if species-rich production systems are less vulnerable to pests than monocultures. Letourneau (1990) reports successful examples in Mexico and California, where it was proved, that higher species diversity facilitates plant protection.

2.1 Index of Crop Species Diversity

Species diversity is determined by two factors: The number of species and the abundance of each species within the community in a given area (compare Shannon & Weaver 1963, Myers & Giller 1990, Begon, Harper & Townsend 1986, Pomeroy 1986, Odum 1971).

During the field survey following data were gathered for each garden: The total number of species and the number of individuals of each species with respect to crops and trees. Following classes were recorded: Cereals, roots and tubers, grain legumes, fruits, vegetables, spices and condiments, fats and oils, sugar and sweeteners, ornamentals, medicinals and drug plants, raw materials, miscellaneous uses and trees. Weeds were recorded only if they were used as vegetables. These data serve to calculate crop species diversity and probably give an answer to the following questions:

2.1.1 Garden Size and Crop Species Diversity

The Shannon-Index decreases with increasing garden size up to a size of 599 m2 (fig 4). The smallest gardens are located in the urban areas and show the highest crop species diversity. The limited space forces people to concentrate many different species in relatively small numbers on small plots. More space promotes market oriented production, which causes the decline of crop species diversity in bigger gardens of less than 800 m2. The very big gardens between 800 and 1999 m2 confirm a positive correlation between size and diversity as was postulated by other authors (e.g. Solar 1985). More space gives more room for different species and allows multipurpose use of garden areas.

Figure 4: Correlation between the size of the garden plots and the crop species diversity index of Shannon (The figures in the diagram indicate the number of gardens having been examined of each class) (Not available here)

2.1.2 Crop Species Diversity and Gender

Comparing the gardens of women and men with respect to crop species diversity it becomes obvious, that women's gardens show higher diversity in rural and periurban areas. In the rural areas the differences are significant: The average Shannon-Index of all women's gardens is 0,99 while men's gardens show only 0,30. This indicates gender specific differences in the role of men and women in vegetable production in the rural sector: women do more subsistence oriented cultivation while men concentrate on market production.

In the periurban area the average Shannon-Index is 0,92 for women's gardens and 0,70 for men's gardens. This indicates a similarity to rural areas. Only in urban areas there are, due to the prevalence of subsistence production, no differences with respect to gender and crop species diversity, but the crop species diversity is higher than in the other areas (H= +/- 1,35). The average number of crops and fruit trees occurring in urban gardens is 10, but only 5 in rural and peri-urban areas.

3. The use of Fertiliser, Manure and Compost in Tropical Homegardens

The use of fertilisers shows much differences between the survey areas. The main causes are the motivation of production, which is market oriented in periurban areas, and the purchasing power of the people, which is generally low in low income groups of urban and rural areas. The use of fertiliser is additionally gender specific (figure. 5). In urban areas only 50% of all respondents use fertiliser, in periurban areas 86%. In periurban areas 100% of men but only 57% of women use fertiliser. The lack of fertiliser for women in periurban areas is compensated by the use of manure. 86% of women use manure, while only 60% of men do so (figure 6). The use of manure shows a slowly increasing tendency from urban to periurbane and rural areas. In urban areas it is still high, with 76% of all respondents. Periurban male producers use more fertiliser, therefore do use less manure. Many of the homegardeners use chicken manure which often causes problems of "burning" of the plants.

Figure 5: The use of fertilisers in homegardens (Not available here)

Figure 6: The use of manure in homegardens (Not available here)

Due to the lack of organic matter and knowledge, composting is not common practice in homegardens. Only 32% of the respondents in urban areas practise composting (figure 7), in rural areas even less (24%) and little more in periurban areas (40%). Some of the urban residents buy compost from others because they can't produce their own. Generally the quality of the compost is very low, due to the lack of water and shade as well as of proper waste management.

Soil analysis of 80 garden soil samples (table 3) proved the high fertility of garden sites compared to rainy season plots in the survey areas. This indicates the possibility for sustainable development of such production sites with low level external input.

Tabel 3: Results of Soils Analysis in different Research Areas - averages of all gardens
Research AreaspH (CaCl2) P [mg/100g] N [%] C [%] Mg [meq/100g] K [meq/100g] Number [n]
Urban 7.6 4.1 0.5 3.6 2.5 0.4 29
Peri-urban 6.5 3.8 0.3 3.0 2.0 0.2 24
Southern Province 7.5 2.0 0.2 3.3 2.9 0.6 20
Northwestern Province 5.8 2.0 0.2 3.2 1.8 0.1 20
Zimbabwe 6.1 5.6 0.1 1.1 1.6 0.2 19

Figure 7: The use of compost in homegardens (Not available here)

4. The need for new extension approaches

With respect to the health of the consumers and environmental impacts the use of pesticides in small gardens is not at all desirable. However 60% of all respondents in Lusaka use pesticides in homegardens, in periurban areas they make nearly 80%. It is very likely that waiting times and dosages are not kept properly, leading to health risks with the consumers. Natural antagonists of aphids where observed in 63% of urban and 21% of periurban gardens. The biological control by parasitic wasps was very effective in many cases. The differences in urban and periurban gardens are caused by a more market oriented production in periurban areas and they are closely related to a higher input of pesticides in periurban gardens. In general it is assumed, that the occurrence of natural antagonists is even higher as the survey findings indicate. Urban gardens show the highest crop species diversity and lowest input of chemical plant protection. Therefore, most of the natural antagonists where observed in these gardens.

Crop species diversity in homegardens contributes to ecological stability and preservation of traditional plant resources. There are manifold advantages of increased diversity in homegardens.

The extension service, up to now often quite restrictive in its recommendations, should be made aware of this important role of homegardens. Homegardens do not only contain genetic resources which have widely disappeared, but also provide seeds and cuttings for the production of staple food (e.g. sweet potatoes cuttings). Homegardens provide ecological niches for many insect species which would have disappeared without the small "islands in the sea" of monocultures. Homegardens mainly function as preservation areas for beneficial organisms, which are important factors in the biological control of plant pests and diseases. Crop species diversity should be promoted instead of being reduced in favour of few exotic species. Therefore intercropping and other integrated methods of plant production should be encouraged in future.

Alternative methods of improving soil fertility is another field of interest that could be promoted by the extension service. Composting is not common practise of the farmers in the area. Traditionally manure is used, as it is still practised in rural societies of Zambia. There is a need to develop appropriate technology for compost production, especially in urban areas, where declining possibilities for livestock keeping might aggravate the future situation. Under the given climatic conditions, compost production can be done in very short time, if it is properly managed.

The gathering of wild food (which was never promoted in the past), improvement of access to markets, partly market oriented production (which will increase household income) and the promotion of traditional vegetables (making households less vulnerable to purchased exotic seeds and pest problems) are other sectors of possible impact and positive signals of extension services.

There is a need for new approaches towards extension of smallholders on different levels:

Holistic approach towards the different components of the smallholders agricultural system: This includes farming as well as gardening, livestock keeping, gathering and other activities like e.g. hunting. Most components where neglected in the past and extension concentrated exclusively on farming activities.

New approach on the technical level: With respect to plant protection, the promotion of knowledge of the role of beneficial organisms in small scale farming systems so far unknown to most of the farmers and even extension officers.

With respect to crop species diversity: New findings of different scientific disciplines must be adopted by the extension service in developing countries. The environmental impact of farming practices is obvious but often overlooked by farmers and officials. Technical assistance might be required.

New approach on the psychological level: Extension must be understood as a service to the people. Consequently interactive learning, participatory extension service, promotion of existing management strategies in stead of the introduction of new, unknown, non adapted and not accepted strategies should be the main goal. The Improvement of the quality of existing strategies should be another main target. The impact of currently practised extension leads in some cases to less crop species diversity in homegardens and non adapted management strategies, which makes the system more vulnerable towards pests and diseases attacks and food security.

New approach towards environmental problems: The avoidance of environmental degradation by environmental sound land use strategies to promote the sustainability of agricultural production and resource management should be an integrated part of extension service.

New approach towards gender specific agricultural activities: Women tend to have higher crop species diversity in their homegardens and they use different strategies to improve soil fertility in peri-urban and rural areas. Generally the role of women in food security differs from the role of men. Due to less access to resources compared to men, women use more manure in periurban areas than men do. In some cases women use less chemical fertilisers because they don't have access to credits. Gender specific differences in agricultural activities need to be paid more attention by extension services.

Bilateral transfer of knowledge between gardeners and extension officers is required to understand the smallholders landuse system and management strategies properly. Alternative management strategies for homegardens are needed. They can only be developed by participatively elaborating extension strategies in close co-operation between smallholders and extension officers.

5. References

Begon, M., J.H. Harper & C.R. Townsend (1986): Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.

Drescher; A.W. (1994): Urban Agriculture in the Seasonal Tropics of Central Southern Africa - A Case Study of Lusaka/Zambia.
Contribution to the International Policy Workshop on Urban Agriculture: A growing Development Tool, University College London (NRI/CPU), 29.06.1994.

Drescher, A.W. (1996a): Urban Microfarming in Central Southern Africa: A Case Study of Lusaka, Zambia. In: African Urban Quarterly (in print).

Drescher, A.W. (1996b): Die Hausgärten der wechselfeuchten Tropen des Suedlichen Afrika - ihre ökologische Funktion und ihr Beitrag zur Ernährungssicherung (Fallstudien aus Sambia). APT Reports No. 4., Institut fuär Phyische Geographie, Arbeitsbereich Angewandte Physiogeographie der Tropen und Subtropen (APT), Universität Freiburg i.Br.

Gura, S. (1995): Vegetable Production - a challenge for urban and rural development. In: entwicklung+ländlicher Raum, Heft 4/95: 3-6.

Kampmann, M (1992): Horizonterweiterung - Frauen in der Ernährunssicherung. In: entwicklung + ländlicher Raum, Heft 4/1992: 1.

Letourneau D.K. (1989): Two Examples of Natural Enemy Augmentation: A Consequence of Crop Diversification. In Gliessman, S.R. (ed.) (1989): Agroecology. Ecological Studies Vol. 78. Springer, New York: 11-29.

Lewis I.U. (1995): Förderung traditioneller Gemuäsaearten - Beispiele aus Afrika. In: entwicklung + ländlicher Raum 4/95: 10-11.

Marsh, R.R. & A. Talukder (1994): Effects of the Introduction of Homegardening on the Production and Consumption of Target, Interaction, and Control Groups: A Case Study from Bangladesh. In: System-Oriented Research in Agriculture and Rural Development. International Symposium. Montpellier, France 21 to 25 Nov. 1994. CIRAD-SAR, Montpellier.

Midmore D.J. (1995): Constraints and potentials of periurban Vegetable Production. In: Richter, J., W.H. Schnizler, S. Gura (Hrsg.) (1995): Vegetable Production in Periurban Areas in the Tropics and Subtropics - Food, Income and Quality of Life. Proceedings of an International Workshop held from 14 to 17 Nov. 1994 in Zschortau, Germany. DSE/ATSAF: 64-84.

Myers A.A. & P.S.Giller (1990): Analytical Biogeography - An Integrated Approach to The Study of Animal and Plant Distributions. Chapmann & Hall, London.

Odum E.P. (1971): Fundamentals of Ecology. Saunders College Publ., Philadelphia.

Pomeroy, D. & M.W. Service (1986): Tropical Ecology. Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex.

Richter, J., W.H. Schnizler, S. Gura (Hrsg.) (1995): Vegetable Production in Periurban Areas in the Tropics and Subtropics - Food, Income and Quality of Life. Proceedings of an International Workshop held from 14 to 17 Nov. 1994 in Zschortau, Germany. DSE/ATSAF.

Shannon, C.E. & W. Weaver (1963): The Mathematical Theory Of Communication. University of Illinois Press: 117 pp.

Solar, K.M. (1985): The Javanese Mixed Homegarden as a Plant Genetic Resource. Rep. No. 819. Nature Conservation Department, Agric. Uni. Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Westermann, T. (1995): Biologischer Gemueseanbau in den Philippinen - ein Beitrag zur Armutsbekämpfung. In: entwicklung + ländlicher Raum 4/95: 15-18.

Publications on Homegardening and Food Security

By A:W: Drescher (PhD, Privatdozent)
Secion of Applied Physiogeography of the Tropics and Subtropics (APT)
Hebelstr. 27, D-79104 Freiburg i. Br./ FRG

Drescher, A.W. & Bos, F. (1993): Report on Fieldwork on Homegardening in Northwestern Province (Zambia). In: Household Food Security, Nutrition and Health Monitoring Report, November 1993, Central Statistical Office, Republic of Zambia, Lusaka.

Drescher, A.W. (1994): Urban Agriculture in the Seasonal Tropics of Central Southern Africa - A Case Study of Lusaka/Zambia. Vortrag und schriftlicher Beitrag fuär den International Policy Workshop on Urban Agriculture: A growing Development Tool, University College London (NRI/CPU), 29.06.1994. (Veroäffentlichung in Proceedings geplant).

Drescher, A.W. (1994): Gardening on Garbage - Opportunity or Threat?. In: Farming at Close Quarters, ILEIA-Newsletter, Vol. 10, No. 4: 20-21.

Drescher, A.W. (1995): Afrikanische Hausgärten als Gegenstand angewandter physisch - geographischer Entwicklungsforschung. In: APT - Reports No.1, Berichte des Arbeitsbereichs Angewandte Physische Geographie der Tropen und Subtropen, Institut fuer Physische Geographie der Universität Freiburg i. Br.: 15 - 26.

Drescher, A.W. (1995): Traditionelle und rezente Landnutzungstrukturen und Nahrungssicherungsysteme im unteren Sambesital (Suedsambia). (Traditional and recent land use structures and food security systems in the lower Zambezi Valley (Southern Zambia) In: Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 139, Heft 5 & 6: 305-322.

Drescher, A.W. (1996): Die Hausgärten der wechselfeuchten Tropen des Suedlichen Afrika - ihre oekologische Funktion und ihr Beitrag zur Ernährungssicherung (Fallstudien aus Sambia). APT - Reports No.4, Berichte des Arbeitsbereichs Angewandte Physische Geographie der Tropen und Subtropen, Institut fuer Physische Geographie der Universität Freiburg i. Br, März 1996.

Drescher, A.W. (1996): Smallholder Microfarming Systems and their Contribution to Livelihood and Household Food Security in the Seasonal Tropics of Southern Africa - New Extension Approaches Needed.
Vortag und schriftlicher Beitrag zum International Symposium on Food Security and Innovations - Successes and Lessons learned. Stuttgart, 11.-13. März 1996.

Drescher, A.W. (1996): Die Bedeutung von Hausgärten fuär die traditionelle und rezente Ernährungssicherung im suedlichen Afrika (Beispiele aus Sambia und Simbabwe) Habilitationsschrift, 248 S. u. Anhänge, 121 Abb., 46 Tab. Angenommen durch die Geowissenschaftliche Fakultät der Universität Freiburg im November 1996.

Drescher, A.W. (1996): Management Strategies in African Homegardens and the Need for new Extension Approaches. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Food Security and Innovations - Successes and Lessons learned. Stuttgart, 11.-13. März 1996.

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