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Philippine References to Urban Agriculture


Thanks to Dr. Robert J. Holmer for these references.
rjholmer@cdo.philcom.com.ph


book cover

Urban Agriculture - A Step-By-Step Guide To Successful Container Gardening In The City
by Rodolfo C. Undan, Pedriot S. Nitural, Anselmo S. Roque and Dante V. Liban, 2002.

The book is published by
"Foresight Book Publishing & Distribution Co., Inc.,
Destileria Limtuaco Building, 1830 EDSA,
Quezon City, Philippines 1106. ISBN 971-91950-2-9
Cost: 295.00 Philippine Peso (~ 6 US $) Contact address of publisher:
Olivia Limpe-Aw
olivelaw@limtuacodistillery.com

Contact address of author:
Dr. Pedrito S. Nitural
Central Luzon State University
Munoz
Nueva Ecija
Philippines
Tel.: 0063-44-4560690
Fax: 0063-456-0688


1. ROBERT J. HOLMER, ROSCOE A. MASIBA, STEFAN DONGUS, AXEL DRESCHER, 2002. Allotment Gardens for the Philippines: A Contribution to Urban Food Security.

This paper focuses on the establishment of a specific garden system to Cagayan de Oro, Philippines that originated in Europe about 150 years ago at the height of industrialization. So-called "gardens for the poor" or "allotment gardens" were established when cities, factories and monasteries provided plots for urban workers allowing them to grow food for their families and to keep pigs, chicken, and other small domestic animals. The paper further describes characteristics of allotment gardens in Germany as well as of vegetable home gardens in the Philippines.
Allotment Gardens for the Philippines

2. ROBERT J. HOLMER, 2001. Appropriate methods for microenterprise development in urban agriculture.

Micro-enterprises provide income and employment for significant proportions of workers in rural and urban areas. In the developing member countries of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), they account for more than 60 percent of all enterprises and up to 50 percent of paid employment. The paper presents different examples for analytical and intervention methods for microenterprise development in urban agriculture, and discusses needs for further enhancement.
Appropriate methods for microenterprise development

3. AMELIA LUZ P. AGBAYANI, HOLMER, R.J., POTUTAN, G.E., SCHNITZLER, W.H., 2001. Quality and quantity requirements for vegetables by private households, vendors and institutional users in a Philippine urban setting.

Two studies were conducted to characterise the demands of private households, vendors and institutional users for fresh vegetables in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. Specifically, these surveys aimed to provide baseline data for decision-makers and farmer practitioners to further improve the market transparency for vegetables and, thus, contribute to better producer and consumer linkages.
Quality and quantity requirements for vegetables

4. GERALD E. POTUTAN, SCHNITZLER, W.H., ARNADO, J.M., JANUBAS, L.G., HOLMER, R.J., 2000. Urban agriculture in Cagayan de Oro: a favourable response of city government and NGOs.

The paper gives an overview of existing urban agricultural activities in Cagayan de Oro City, Mindanao, Philippines
Urban agriculture in Cagayan de Oro

5. ROBERT J. HOLMER, GABUTIN, L.B., SCHNITZLER, W.H., 1997. Organic fertilizer production from city waste: A model approach in a Southeast Asian urban environment. In: KURDI/AVRDC.

In cooperation with the city government of Cagayan de Oro, Southern Philippines, fruit and vegetable leftovers from the public markets are segregated by the market vendors, and thereafter collected and delivered to the research location of Xavier University College of Agriculture. In the experiments, organic farm residues (plants and animal manures), agro-industry refuses (coffee sludge and coffee ground) as well as local rock phosphate are added to the city waste in different combinations to investigate the effects on compost maturity and compost quality. The maturity of the composts is determined by monitoring of (1) moisture content, (2) compost temperature, (3) compost pH, (4) compost biology as well as by (5) seedling germination tests. The finished compost is analyzed for organic matter and nutrient contents as well as for heavy metal residues. Composting is recognized as an environmentally beneficial activity. However, inappropriate composting technologies can result to ecological disturbances, particularly the release of foul odors due to anaerobic decomposition and the leaching of nitrate into the groundwater. Procedures to optimize the aeration of compost heaps and to minimize the leaching of nitrate, especially during rainy season, are additionally investigated.
rganic fertilizer production from city waste



6. JUAN C. ACOSTA, DOMINGO G.C., HOLMER R.J., SCHNITZLER, W.H., 1997. Genetic resources for urban tomato cultivation in the tropics.

In the tropics, commercial production of tomatoes is primarily limited by the soil born disease bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum). Fruit set of tomatoes can be disturbed if temperatures reach levels of higher than 34C/20C (day/night) due to low pollen or ovule viability, stigma exsertion which produces functional male sterility or antheridial cone splitting.

At Bukidnon Seed Corporation, a private Philippine small-sized seed company, lines with resistance to bacterial wilt and good hot set have been developed. For a research project funded by the INCO-DC program of the European Union on periurban vegetable production in three Southeast Asian cities, these lines are further improved. The general objectives of the breeding program are (1) developing disease resistant and high yielding varieties adapted to the climate of the tropical lowland, (2) improving of vigor and plant structure, and (3) incorporating desirable fruit qualities such as shape, size, firmness, color, nutritional values, flavor and taste into a single variety.
Genetic resources for urban tomato cultivation in the tropics

7. ROBERT J. HOLMER & WILFRIED H. SCHNITZLER, 1997. Drip irrigation for small-scale tomato production in the tropics.

In cooperation with a private Philippine tomato processing company, a research study was conducted in the province of Bukidnon, Southern Philippines, to optimize the production of high quality tomatoes for fresh market and processing by the use of drip irrigation. The system was designed to be particularly applicable and suited for small farming family enterprises. The standard open furrow irrigation with the fertilizer applied in solid form in two side-dressings (dry application) was compared with drip irrigation and fertigation. The trials were carried out in the company's experimental stations and in 10 small farmers' fields in the different agro-ecological zones of Bukidnon (low, medium and high elevation). Every on-farm research set-up comprised 0.25 ha each for open furrow and for drip irrigation. In all research stations as well as in 9 out of 10 on farm-trials, the fertigated tomato plants yielded significantly higher than those irrigated by open furrows. Tomatoes under fertigation had a mean usable yield of 56.8 t/ha in the on-farm-trials compared to 33.5 t/ha only in the furrow irrigated fields (cv. 21.1 %, LSD1% = 13.9 t/ha). The yield differences obtained in farmers' field were even more expressed than in the experimental stations where the conditions, particularly in terms of water management for the open furrow irrigation, could be better controlled than under the actual working conditions of the small farmers. All farmers who participated in these on-farm studies appreciated the simplified way of applying water and fertilizers to their crop by using drip irrigation. Areas with limited water supply and competition among the farmers for water could be utilized for growing of high-value crops. The problem of soil erosion due to the drip-wise water emission out of the dripper lines was nearly eliminated in contrary to the standard open furrow irrigation.
Drip irrigation for small-scale tomato production in the tropics

8. GERALD E. POTUTAN, JANUBAS L. G., ARNADO J. M., HOLMER, R. J., SCHNITZLER, W. H., 1997. Periurban vegetable production, consumption and marketing in Cagayan de Oro, Philippines.

For a research project funded by the INCO-DC program of the European Union, a survey was conducted to a total of 300 randomly selected respondents (100 vegetable farmers, 100 vegetable vendors and 100 vegetable consumers) in Cagayan de Oro, a city with a population of about 470,000 located in the Southern Philippines. Around 22,000 ha or 44 % of its territory are classified as agricultural areas, out of which 2,300 ha are used for crop production. The largest portion of the cropped area (1,160 ha or 51 %) is devoted to corn. Only 55 ha (2 %) are grown with vegetables [3]. The objective of the study was to evaluate and prioritize the different socioeconomic and anthropological constraints and potentials of peri-urban vegetable production and its impact on community, small farm enterprises and city administration. Questions in the survey concerned vegetable consumption patterns, vegetable production practices and marketing systems. Data were processed using MINITAB 12.0 software and were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Findings of the survey reveal that the daily per capita consumption of vegetables in Cagayan de Oro is below 100 grams, less than one half of the recommended minimum intake of 200 grams to ensure an adequate micronutrient supply [4]. The vegetable crops with the highest consumption in the city are tomato (3,132 tons per year) and eggplant (2,940 tons), followed by papaya (1,716 tons) and head cabbage (1,632 tons). Consumers in Cagayan de Oro prefer their vegetables being fresh, medium sized and half-ripe. The average size of the vegetable farms is about _ hectare. More than 80% of the farmer respondents used inorganic fertilizers and chemical pesticides in their last three croppings. Only 12 % received training in integrated pest management. Of those trained, 36% changed their pesticide practices, using less toxic products with better effects on pest control. Primary constraints in vegetable production are unfavorable climatic conditions such as high night temperatures and the presence of pests in the farm. Lack of capital and irregular water supply were also mentioned as further limitations. 83 % of the vendor-respondents are retailers while the rest are wholesalers. Average daily sale of vegetables is 50 kilos for retailers and 2,500 kilos for wholesalers. Add-on price is about 18% of the original price. Problems encountered in vegetable trading include the seasonality of vegetable supply, unavailability of suitable area in the market, and lack of capital.
Periurban vegetable production, consumption and marketing in Cagayan de Oro

9. ROBERT J. HOLMER, MERCADO A.B., SCHNITZLER, W.H., 2001. Integration of peri-urban food production into solid waste management programs: A case study from the Philippines.

Different survey data pertaining to vegetable production and solid waste management in Cagayan de Oro are presented. Special emphasis is given to the potential of integrating peri-urban food production into improved solid waste management programs and its contribution to food security. Business opportunities for micro- and small-sized enterprise development in urban farming in connection with sustainable waste management strategies as well as issues and actions to further enhance urban and periurban agriculture in the Philippines are formulated.
Integration of peri-urban food production into solid waste management programs: A case study from the Philippines.

10. ROBERT J. HOLMER, JANUBAS, L.G., POTUTAN, G.E., SCHNITZLER, W.H., 2001. Pest management strategies of urban and periurban vegetable growers in Cagayan de Oro City.

Peri-urban vegetable production is gaining importance for at least two reasons: to provide affordable but nutritious food for the growing urban population and to address the increasing problem on micronutrient deficiency of children and women. For a research project funded by the INCO-DC program of the European Union, a survey was conducted among 100 randomly selected vegetable farmers in Cagayan de Oro City with particular focus on their pest management strategies. Findings of the survey reveal that more than 80 % of the farmer respondents have used chemical pesticides in their last three croppings. Most of the farmers are not using sufficient protective devices while spraying and the majority of them encountered ill effects after the pesticide application. Only very few farmers received training in integrated pest management. Of those trained, one-third changed their pesticide practices, using less toxic products with better effects on pest control. Respondents favor natural control measures with less chemical applications involved, however, these technologies seem not to be as readily available to them compared to chemical pesticides.
Pest management strategies of urban and periurban vegetable growers in Cagayan de Oro City.

11. ROBERT J. HOLMER, 2000. THE PERIURBAN VEGETABLE PROJECT OF XAVIER UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE. A research project on periurban vegetable production, consumption and marketing in Cagayan de Oro funded by the European Union Commission was conducted from October 1, 1997 to August 31, 2000.
The research activities comprised of six workpackages, namely (1) socio-economic situation of periurban vegetable production, consumption and marketing in Cagayan de Oro, Ho Chi Minh City and Vientiane, (2) crop improvement, (3) soil management and plant nutrition, (4) integrated pest & disease management, (5) water management, and (6) marketing.

The findings were:

  • A database was established containing a description of the socio-demographic and economic characteristics of vegetable growers, vendors and consumers in the project cities, including loans and savings, health status and gender relations; assessment of vegetable consumption patterns and quality criteria for vegetables of private households and institutional users as well as waste disposal practices; classification of different vegetable production practices such as pesticide and fertilizer use including integrated pest management and crop rotation, irrigation practices as well as labor inputs; description of vegetable marketing systems including methods of marketing, type of vegetables sold, sources of supply and possible common problems encountered by vendors.
  • Tomato cultivar 'Puveporo' proved to be a reliable variety with stable yield performance throughout the year ranging from 22 t/ha up to 40 t/ha under low elevation conditions.
  • Eggplant cultivars 'Bingo' and 'Casino' can be recommended for planting in farmers' fields in low elevation areas.
  • Head cabbage cultivar 'Southern Treasure' performed best among all entries in both wet and dry season trials.
  • Cauliflower 'White Shot' obtained the highest marketable yield in both wet and dry season trials.
  • Broccoli 'Tenjiku' performed very well under the low elevation conditions of Manresa Farm with a marketable yield potential of about 11.3 t/ha.
  • Yardlong bean cultivars 'Sandigan' and '6001 XL' recorded the highest marketable yields during dry season and during rainy season.
  • Reduction of lepidopterous pest population of cauliflower by aromatic intercrops such as peppermint and lemon basil was not significant. Through increased plant density and subsequent competition for nutrients and light the curd size of intercropped cauliflower was reduced.
  • The adding of sticker to commercial neem extract and BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) products increased significantly their effectivity in controlling lepidopterous pests of cauliflower. In this case, control of lepidopterous pests was more effective compared to synthetic pyrethroids. However, for the control of aphids only the synthetic pyrethroids were effective compared to BT and neem extract.
The Periurban Vegetable Project Of Xavier University College Of Agriculture.

12. AMELIA LUZ P. AGBAYANI, HOLMER, R.J., SCHNITZLER, W.H., 2000. Purchasing patterns and requirements of institutional users of fresh vegetables in Cagayan de Oro.

A survey using administered questionnaires was conducted during the period June 15 to July 7, 1999 in Cagayan de Oro City. One hundred institutional users of fresh vegetables in Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines, were surveyed to determine their purchasing patterns. Ten hospitals, twenty schools, fourteen canteens, five government and private institutions each, twenty six restaurants and twenty hotels were included in the survey. The list from which the sample was drawn was taken from an updated edition of the Cagayan de Oro City Profile prepared by the City Planning and Development Division.

The findings were:

  • Seventy percent (70%) of the institutions bought vegetables on a daily basis. These were mostly (67%) bought from Cogon market while another fifteen percent (15%) bought from Carmen market bringing to eighty two percent (82%) the number of institutions sourcing their vegetable requirements mainly from the two wet markets in the city. Only thirteen percent (13%) of the institutions buy from supermarkets and this is only some of the time..
  • On the average, institutions spend 9.5% of their food budget on vegetables. The 100 institutions surveyed buy around PhP 510,000 worth of vegetables monthly. This accounts for 44% of the total expenditures on fruits and vegetables outside the home in Cagayan de Oro City.
  • Most purchases are paid in cash. It is the hotels, restaurants and private hospitals which availed of 15 days term credit. All the public hospitals, private and public schools, government and private shelter institutions pay in cash.
  • The five vegetables bought in largest quantities weekly are squash (6.3 kg), cabbage (6.1 kg) potato (5.8 kg) carrots (4.4 kg), and papaya (3.8 kg). Hotels buy more temperate type vegetables than tropical types at a ratio of 1.2. Non hotel-based restaurants on average buy equal amounts of temperate and tropical foods. Government and private shelter institutions buy less temperate than tropical type vegetables at a ratio of 0.3 and 0.1 respectively.
  • On the average, the respondents find prices, which are 2.3 times the minimum price to be prohibitive when buying the cheaper kinds of vegetables (tropical types). For the expensive type of vegetables like asparagus, broccoli and garlic, prices higher by 1.8 times are already considered prohibitive. For the cheapest vegetable varieties like marsh cabbage (kangkong), malabar spinach (alugbati) and lady's finger (okra), prohibitive prices are when these are 3.3 times higher than the minimum price.
  • Big sizes are preferred for bitter gourd (ampalaya), eggplant, bulb onion and squash. Medium sized broccoli, bell pepper, cabbage, cauliflower and cucumber are preferred. Medium and large sized carrots are demanded equally by the institutions. Measurements corresponding to big and small sizes overlap for many consumers of fresh vegetables. The range of measurements for what passes as medium overlaps the range of measurements for what passes as big or large. However, there are modes of exact measurements corresponding to what is regarded as medium or large size.
Purchasing patterns and requirements of institutional users of fresh vegetables in Cagayan de Oro.






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Revised Monday, October 25, 2002

Published by City Farmer
Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture

cityfarmer@gmail.com