SGUA Participant Resources

Daniel Maxwell
Work on urban agriculture at Noguchi Memorial
Institute for Medical Research [NMIMR],
University of Ghana. P.O. Box 25,
Legon, Ghana.

Institution's Work in UA:
NMIMR is carrying out a study of urban food security and malnutrition in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area, which will include a component of urban agriculture. A proposal for this component is under preparation, for submission to donors. A pre-research roundtable workshop highlighted the importance of urban agriculture, both in terms of supplying the city with certain types of perishable foods, and in terms of income generation and access to food by the urban poor.

Key Contacts:
Dr. Dan Maxwell, Dr. Margaret Armar-Klemesu (Both in Nutrition Unit, NMIMR)

Daniel Maxwell (1996). "Highest and Best Use? Access to Urban Land for Semi-Subsistence Food Production." Land Use Policy, June, 1996 issue.

Gertrude Atukunda and Daniel Maxwell (forthcoming). "Farming in the City of Kampala. Issues for Urban Management". African Urban Quarterly, (forthcoming).

Daniel Maxwell (1996). "Food Production in Urban Areas." In Hansen and Twaddle (Eds.), Developing Uganda. London: James Currey. (Forthcoming)

Daniel Maxwell (1995). "Alternative Food Security Strategy: A Household Analysis of Urban Agriculture in Kampala." World Development, Vol. 23(10).

Daniel Maxwell (1995). "Labor, Land, Food and Farming: A Household Analysis of Urban Agriculture in Kampala, Uganda." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Daniel Maxwell (1994). "The Household Logic of Urban Farming in Kampala." Chapter 3 in, Egziabher et al. (Eds.), Cities Feeding People: An Examination of Urban Agriculture in East Africa. Ottawa: IDRC Books.

Daniel Maxwell and Samuel Zziwa (1993). "Urban Agriculture: Indigenous Adaptive Response to the African Economic Crisis." Ecology of Food and Nutrition, Vol. 29(2).

Daniel Maxwell and Samuel Zziwa (1992). Urban Farming in Africa: The Case of Kampala, Uganda. Nairobi: ACTS Press (African Centre for Technology Studies).

Elizabeth Graham
Anthropology, York University
New World Archaeology, Royal Ontario Museum
York Ph: (416)736-2100 ext.77783 Fax: (416)736-5768
ROM Ph: (416)586-5730 Fax: (416)586-5643

My research is on long-term soil genesis under urban conditions in the humid tropics; my research area is the Maya region, and Belize in particular.

On the topic of pre-industrial or pre-colonial urban practices in the humid tropics, I am the key contact.

Two papers are in press, written by me, to appear in books published by Columbia University Press and Routledge, London. Publication information forthcoming.

Elizabeth Wilson

Developing Countries Farm Radio Network (DCFRN)

The Farm Radio Network is an information exchange network for rural communicators in developing countries including broadcasters, extension workers, health workers, teachers, and librarians. We supply simple, practical information aimed at increasing food supplies and improving health and nutrition at the grassroots level.

In 1992, the United Nations Development Program commissioned the Network to produce a series of scripts on urban agriculture. We produced four scripts in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese which focus on using roadside space for farming, raising rabbits in the city, and growing in small containers and walls. These scripts were presented along with accompanying cassettes at a world conference of mayors in Brazil just before the Earth Summit.

In 1995-96, we produced a series of six scripts on urban agriculture funded by the International Development Research Centre in Ottawa, Canada. The first three scripts, published in our April 1996 package, deal with growing vegetable vines in small spaces, rooftop gardening, and raising guinea pigs. The next three, in the July 1996 package, provide information on lead reduction in urban farming, growing fruit in the city, and gardening in tires.

In the future, the Farm Radio Network is committed to providing fresh material on sustainable urban farming practices and techniques for people in developing countries. For further information on our urban agriculture series, contact:
Jennifer Pittet (Managing Editor) at:
40 Dundas Street West,
P.O. Box 12, Suite 227B,
Toronto, Ontario, CANADA, M5G 2C2
tel: (416) 593-7279, fax: (416) 593-3752

Scripts are free, and generally run 2-3 pages, many with illustrations.

Urban agriculture Scripts by Package Number:

    26.1 Grow food in the city (1020 words)

    26.2 Profit from raising rabbits in the city (1150 words)

    27.5 Farm in a box (985 words)

    29.8 Grow food cheaply by the roadside (1373 words)

    39.1 Grow vegetable vines in small spaces (1200 words)

    39.2 Garden on your rooftop (790 words)

    39.6 Raising guinea pigs for meat or money (1190 words)

    41.2 Reduce lead in city gardens (980 words)

    41.5 Gardening in tires (1080 words)

    41.11 Growing fruit in the city (585 words)

ETC Foundation
Kastanjelaan 5, P.O.Box 64
3830 AB Leusden, The Netherlands
Tel: +31.(0)33.4943086
Fax: +31.(0)33.4940791

1. On ETC

ETC Foundation was established in 1974 as a non-profit but commercial organization based in the Netherlands. Currently, ETC Foundation is an international organization with local offices in Leusden (the Netherlands), Tynemouth (UK), New Delhi (India), Nairobi (Kenya), Colombo (Sri Lanka), Lima (Peru) and a representative in Harare (Zimbabwe).

All ETC offices share a common vision concerning development cooperation and a joint responsibility regarding the formulation of general policies, quality of work and human resource development. Local offices are autonomous in implementing projects and programs. ETC International is functioning as the service and coordinating unit for all offices.

ETC employs about 50 experts of different nationalities on a permanent basis. Another 100 staff members are contracted for the execution of projects and programs.

ETC is involved in policy analysis and development, (applied) research projects and development studies, program identification and formulation, project management, technical assistance and backstopping, impact assessments.

ETC's main objective is to encourage and support local initiatives which aim to build sustainable development. ETC attaches great importance to its involvement in national and international dialogue on development approaches and therefore participates in various networks and organizes seminars and workshops on key development issues.

ETC's main fields of expertise are the following: Environmental management and planning, Sustainable Agriculture, Agroforestry, Sustainable Energy, low cost Housing, Water Supply and Sanitation, Agricultural research and extension.

In all fields due attention is given to local capacity development, gender issues, and the application of participatory approaches. Our approach emphasizes self management, location specificity, use of local knowledge, and sustainability of the programs.

2. Urban Agriculture (UA)

Some 4 years ago ETC started to develop interest in this field, acknowledging the vast potential of the use of urban waste for urban agricultural production, urban animal production and fish culture, urban forestry, and its significance for the urban poor (employment, income, food and energy) and for urban environmental management.

ETC initiated its activities by undertaking some exploratory studies on local experiences in four major cities (Lima, New Delhi, Nairobi, Harare, Colombo).

ETC is contributing to the promotion of Urban Agriculture by collecting and disseminating local experiences on UA through its Information Centre on Low External Input Agriculture (ILEIA), and by assisting in the preparation and implementation of regional conferences on urban agriculture (in Bolivia, Germany, UK, India and Zimbabwe).

ETC is a member of the (interim-) Steering Committee of the Global Facility on Urban Agriculture (GFUA).

ETC-NL, in coordination with TUAN, IDRC and other GFUA partners, is preparing the publication of an (electronic) international newsletter on Urban Agriculture and the establishment of a resource-base on Urban Agriculture.

One staff member of ETC NL is involved in a project on "community supported agriculture" in the Netherlands.

ETC ANDES (Lima/La Paz) is hosting and co-financing (with IDRC) the Latin American Network on Urban Agriculture (AGUILA).

ETC-Sri Lanka is preparing an action research project in Colombo with both governmental and municipal organizations in town planning, agriculture and livestock, as well as local NGOs and CBOs active in this field.

ETC India is involved in the set up of an Indian network on Urban Agriculture and in the formulation of an UA project with the All India Kitchen Garden Association, the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the Planning Commission of India.

ETC consultants do assist local organizations in the development and implementation of UA projects.

3. Resource Persons

ETC activities in the field of Urban Agriculture are coordinated by Henk de Zeeuw (agricultural sociologist), part-time assisted by Marielle Dubbeling (agronomist). Other ETC staff involved in Urban Agriculture and their field of expertise:

  • Henk Kieft (ETC-NL), LEISA farming
  • Ann Waters-Bayer (ETC-NL, Animal husbandry
  • Julie van der Bliek (ETC-Lanka), Participatory land use planning
  • Winfried Rijssenbeek (ETC NL), Energy and habitat
  • Joanne Harnmeyer (ETC Zimbabwe), Health aspects
  • Fred Kooijman (ETC NL), Housing and sanitation
  • Teobaldo Pinzas (ETC ANDES), Economic aspects
  • Chris Howorth (ETC UK), Economic aspects

ETC maintains relations of cooperation with TUAN (The Urban Agriculture Network, Washington), WASTE (a Dutch consultancy organization with special expertise in recycling of urban wastes) and IIEU (Institute of the University of Delft, the Netherlands, with special expertise in urban planning with an ecological perspective).

4. Some ETC Publications on This Theme

  • Julie van der Bliek. Urban agriculture; Possibilities for ecological agriculture in urban environments as a strategy for sustainable cities. ETC-NL, Leusden, September 1992

  • Sandhyia Chatterji, A preliminary study of urban agriculture in New Delhi, ETC India, New Delhi March 1993

  • Teobaldo Pinzas, A preliminary exploration of urban agriculture in Peru, ETC ANDES, Lima, March 1994

  • Julie van der Bliek. A framework for analysis and action for urban agriculture. Paper presented at TUAN-NRI policy workshop "Urban agriculture: a growing development tool" 29 June 1994, London UK

  • Wim Hiemstra & Coen Reijntjes, "Wastes wanted" Special issue of ILEIA Newsletter Volume 10 no 3, October 1994

  • Alders C., van der Bliek J & Waters-Bayer A (eds) "Farming at close quarters" Special issue of ILEIA-Newsletter Volume 10 no 4, December 1994

  • Chris Howorth, Ian Convery & B Majani, Economic sustainability of urban horticultural projects, Tanzania, ETC UK, September 1995

  • Ann Waters-Bayer. Living with Livestock in town: Urban animal husbandry and human welfare. Keynote paper Eight International Conference of Institutions of Tropical Veterinary Medicine, 25-29 September 1995, Berlin, Germany

  • Chris Howorth (ETC UK), Momo Masoka (ENDA Zimbabwe) and Joanne Harnmeyer (ETC Zimbabwe): A local stake holders workshop on urban agriculture, ENDA, Harare, March 1996

  • Julie van der Bliek & Ann Waters Bayer. Farming in the City: from analysis to action. accepted for publication by African Urban Quarterly.

  • Ann Waters Bayer. Animal farming in African Cities. accepted for publication by African Urban Quarterly.

5. Further Contacts

You can reach us in one of the following ways:

ETC Netherlands
telephone: +31-33-4943086
fax: +31-33-4940791

ETC India
Phone: +91 11 685 6672
Fax: idem

ETC Andes
Phone: +51 14 462157
Fax: +51 14 453957

ETC Lanka
Phone: +94 1 683039
Fax: +94 1 683039

ETC Kenya
Phone: +254 2 445421
Fax: + 254 2 445424

ETC representative Zimbabwe
Phone: +263 4 460299
Fax: +263 4 486954

Phone: +44 191 296 1681
Fax: +44 191 296 1682

Jackie Wood

CARE is active in urban areas indeed, but urban agriculture has not necessarily been a focus. This will change over time however, as the contribution of UA to global food security is increasingly recognized, and as governments see UA not so much as a problem but as a solution. UA offers a complement to some of our existing work in urban areas, in water and sanitation, in environmental clean-up, infrastructure, and health.

For the moment, CARE Canada's practical involvement in UA is through an Urban Horticulture project in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. This project aims to adapt and disseminate appropriate tecnologies needed for sustainable production of horticultural crops in selected "bidonvilles" (shantytowns) in the Haitian capital. Emphasis is put on a participatory approach working with local community organizations. Town generated liquid and solid waste is intended to provide an essential link as a natural resource to enhance agricultural production while at the same time improving environmental conditions and community health. Financing for this initiative is from IDRC, CARE/CIDA Programme Grant. As this pilot phase advances CARE is seeking additional contributions to the Project.

Primary CARE Canada contacts on UA include myself and the Project Manager of the Haiti Urban Horticulture Project. Coordinates as follows:

Jacqueline Wood
Programme Support and Technical Assistance Unit
CARE Canada
P.O. Box 9000
Ottawa, ON
K1G 4X6

Mildred Delphi-Regis
Project Manager
Urban Horticulture in Port-au-Prince, Haiti
CARE Haiti
P.O. Box 15546
Petion-Ville, Haiti


James Petts
Sustain: The alliance for better food and farming
Urban Food and Agriculture
94 White Lion St
London N1 9PF
Tel: 020 7837 1228 Fax: 020 7837 1141
Web Site: Sustain
James Petts

City Harvest News (April 6, 2000)


Responses to our report, City Harvest: the feasibility of growing more food in London, have been arriving from the London assembly candidates with mainly positive statements. James Petts, City Harvest's project officer, has been lobbying the Mayoral candidates including attending a London Voluntary Service Council conference on the 23rd of February aimed at influencing the Mayor's agenda.

James will be attending a seminar on the future of allotments in the UK on the 12th of April. With the continuing threat to allotments by developers and debates over the future organisation of allotments this comes at a very appropriate time.

There are now a number of website links on the City Harvest section of Sustain's website ( to various organisations involved in urban agriculture, horticulture, gardening, green architecture, and urban sustainability including: General


  • City Farmer
  • Cities Feeding People (IDRC)
  • United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation
  • Permaculture Institute (Australia)
  • Natural Resources International (UK)
  • United Nations Development Programme
  • United Nations Environment Programme
  • International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  • World Health Organisation
  • International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives


  • ETC Urban Agriculture Programme
  • European Union Sustainable Towns and Cities Campaign
  • Local Sustainability - the European Good Practice Information Service

United Kingdom

  • National Society of Allotments and Leisure Gardeners
  • Henry Doubleday Research Association
  • Agro-forestry Research Trust
  • Groundwork
  • National Association of Farmers' Markets
  • BTCV
  • National Vegetable Society
  • Royal Horticultural Society
  • Federation of City Farms and Community Gardens
  • Learning Through Landscapes
  • e-Garden
  • Common Ground
  • Edible Species
  • Foundation for Local Food Initiatives
  • Tidy Britain Group


  • London21
  • Urban Futures (Living London)
  • Cameron Community Garden (Ecospires)

Edible Buildings

  • Arid Lands Initiative
  • Centre for Alternative Technology
  • Permaculture Association (UK)
  • Architecture Foundation
  • Landscape Institute
  • Ecological Design Association (UK)
  • Association of Ecological Design (Sweden)
  • National Sustainable Tower Blocks Initiative
  • Prince's Foundation
  • Royal Institute of British Architects
  • Ecological Design Institute (USA)
  • Scottish Ecological Design Association
  • Rooftop Garden Resource Group (Canada)
  • German Roof Gardeners Coalition (Germany)
  • Green Roofs for Healthy Cities (Canada)
  • Soil Association

East London Food Futures
This project aims to support and create community based food growing, distribution and retail schemes alongside local networks. For each of the Boroughs we intend to establish and maintain:

  • a community based project
  • a community designed strategy to implement Food Futures
  • training programmes to assist the project
  • networking among the community based project groups

The pilot projects link to several Council and Health Authority strategies. These include regeneration, anti-poverty, environment, healthier nation and social exclusion policies. It is intended that the project will have additional benefits to the local community, such as greater community participation, empowerment and capacity building.

Catherine Mukhopadhyay, Sustain's new co-ordinator, is now in place at Tower Hamlets town hall and has been liasing with the five boroughs; Newham, Waltham Forest, Greenwich, Tower Hamlets and Redbridge. The Food Future's launch took place on the 1st of April at Newham Town Hall with speakers from the five boroughs, Nina Planck from London Farmers' Markets and Jenny Usher - a organic farmer from Essex. Anyone interested in the East London Food Futures project should contact Catherine on 44 171 364 6715.

Edible Buildings
Edible Buildings is a project currently under development by Sustain. It aims to promote, support and implement sustainable development through the local production and consumption of food on, in and up buildings, for the benefit of people and the environment
  • James and Jeanette Longfield (Co-ordinator of Sustain) had a positive meeting with the King's Fund at the end of February to discuss funding of part of the project. We are optimistic that our application will be successful although we will have to wait until May to find out. We met The Sainsbury Family Charitable Trusts in mid-March which also went well - outcome of this in May. A lottery bid and a number of other applications are being drafted as well as a business plan. We have also applied for a small grant from East London and City Health Authority (ELCHA) to work with the Federation of City Farms and Community Gardens in Tower Hamlets to help people grow food in, on and around buildings.
  • We have been invited by Urban Futures to collaborate on their exhibition from April to June - the exhibition is concerned with urban sustainability and will be held at the Royal Institute of British Architect's building in London. The exhibition hopes to include a terrace garden producing food and illustrations of urban agriculture in the UK.
  • We have submitted abstracts of the benefits and problems of 'edible buildings' to present at two conferences in the summer. The first in Berlin concerned with urban agriculture (Urban Agriculture and Horticulture - Benefits, Challenges and Limitations) and the second in Manchester concerned with urban sustainability (the second Sustainable Cities Network conference).
  • James attended a seminar in Birmingham regarding the National Sustainable Tower Blocks Initiative led by Going for Green, Groundwork, & the Shell Better Britain Campaign. It has produced a report about tower blocks and their potential sustainability including a bit on food growing - copies of the report are available from the Shell Better Britain Campaign (44 121 248 5903).
  • We have set up an email discussion site to facilitate the networking of people interested in this aspect of urban agriculture. This is a public site ( so anyone can join in. The group address is
There are two ways for people to join the group:
1. Users add themselves by entering their e-mail addresses into the membership form found with the group's messages on the
2. Users send an e-mail to

James recently visited Peter Cummings house in Kentish Town to advise on suitable food crops to grow on his rooftop garden. The development of the garden is going well including the installation of a lean to greenhouse to extend the growing season. Peter has experienced some vandalism by the local youths but hopes this will be avoided when trellising is installed.

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Revised April 6, 2000

Pages maintained by City Farmer, Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture Urban Agriculture Notes